(1) A type of rule recognized in some models of transformational grammar. In a ‘raising-to object’ or object-raising rule, the linear constituents in a string consisting of a main clause + complement clause are bracketed so that the subject of the complement clause appears to have been raised to become the object of the higher clause. In a subject-raising rule, an underlying subject complement clause has the subject taken from it and ‘raised’ to be the subject of the main clause. Other syntactic applications of the term ‘raising’ may also be encountered.
(2) In phonetics and phonology, a vertical process affecting tongue height; opposed to lowering. In the course of language change, a vowel in an originally low position might be raised to a relatively high position.