In semantics and pragmatics, expressions which involve scales in their interpretation. They include logical quantifiers, quantifying determiners, quantifying time expressions, scalar adverbs, and scalar predicates. The nature of such scales is controversial, being conceived both in terms of strength (e.g. ‘all is stronger than some’) and of direction (almost and more activate a scale which is in a positive direction, by contrast with the negative direction of only and less than).
语义学和语用学用来指其释义涉及级差的词语。级差词语包括逻辑量词、量化限定词、量化时间词语、级差副词、级差谓词。对如何认识这类级差的性质存在争议，有的视其为强度级差（例如all强于some），有的视其为方向级差（almost和more than激活一个正向级差，而only和less than激活的是负向级差）。